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„Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Russologica” is a scientific yearbook of the Institute of Neo-Philology – Russian Philology of the Pedagogical University of. KEN in Cracow. Journal is devoted to current research in Russian literature, Eastern Slavonic linguistics and glottodidactics. The purpose of the yearbook is to create opportunities for exchange of experiences and publication of research results conducted by employees of the Institute of Neo-Philology – Russian Philology of Pedagogical University. KEN in Cracow, as well as various scientific centers in Poland and abroad.
„Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Russologica” is a journal whose main purpose is to disseminate the results of literary, linguistic and glottodidactic studies, which are subject to thematic diversity, interdisciplinarity and a variety of methodological presentations of issues discussed in them. They give an impression of intriguing and sometimes little-known phenomena of Russian literature and language, as well as various aspects of Russian language teaching in the school and in Russian studies.

Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis
Studia Russologica VII (2014)
Political language as a subject of study of Polish and Russian political linguistics. Conceptual and terminological deliberations
Political language is one of the basic terms for the name of the subject of research in a rapidly growing political linguistics. However, a clear and generally accepted definition of this complex term does not exist. The article presents terminological problems of the study of political language in Polish and Russian political linguistics. Definitions of political language are provided and the main functions of this multifaceted phenomenon are given. The author emphasizes the questionable status of the language of politics in modern Polish and Russian linguistics.
Key words: political language, language of politics, political linguistics, political communication
Nuances of translating technical texts
The text draws attention to these aspects of the translation process, which in technical texts play an important role and, above all, cause the most trouble, in particular, measurement units, abbreviations, key words, rules of spelling and punctuation, style of the text. The above list is a humble part of a biggest entity and presents the most important aspects and problems connected with translation into the Russian language. In specialized translation the most important thing is to maintain the compatibility i.e. to adjust as far as possible to the accepted standards.
Key words: translation, technical text, errors

The reconstruction of the etymological family slav. *tomiti
Slav. *tomiti refers to the number of etymologically obscure words. With the involvement of dialectal data in a new, broader context of the study the opportunity after W. Boryś interpret the verb as a continuation of the Slav. *tęti, tьmọ, non *tęti, tьnọ with the original semantics of vague, uncertain manifested by action or state. This main feature is motivated by the diversity of values fixed by the dictionaries at different times and in different Slavic areas (‘to cause suffering’, ‘to press, to torment’, ‘randomly move, hustling’, ‘to wall, to wander’ etc.). The value of the pressue taken after the original is one of the links in the chain of semantic transformatios. Attemted on the basis of analysis of semantics and opportunities there are morphological relations substantiate the relationship with the Slav. *tomiti isolated, semantically remote entities with root vowel -e- (Serb-Croat. utemati ‘to kill, to finish’, Sloven. raztemati ‘to melt’), -i- (Russ. dial. тимиться ‘naughty’, ‘warry’, ‘to do something insignificant’), -ь- (Slovac. tmolit’ ‘dangle, punning’ and others).
Key words: etymology, reconstruction, semantic, morphological relations

A recent phenomenon in modern Russian: the adjective-based adverb „тупо” as a particle
Is presented a recent phenomenon in modern Russian: the adjective-based adverb тупо is frequently used as a particle nowadays. This particle have become an evocative colloquial synonym for particles просто, просто-напросто, банально, элементарно. The author describes a background knowledge enclosed in utterances with particles constituting a part of this synonymic row.
Key words: modern Russian, colloquial Russian, particles, background knowledge, implicit semantics, evaluation, alternative
Culture and literary translation according to Ludwik Zamenhof (Gogol’s The inspector general)
This paper is an attempt to apply Umberto Eco’s theory of intention (with the addition of one essential term, which is the intention of the translator) to an analysis of three versions of one Russian comedy. They are the Russian original by Nikolai Gogol, the translation of Ludwik Zamenhof into Esperanto and the Polish translation of Julian Tuwim. Thanks to the research approach taken it is possible to analyze three basic problems of international linguistic communication. The translations into Esperanto and Polish have both earned the esteem of readers despite differences being observable in many places, principally due to the different intentions of the translators.
Key words: literary translation, Ludwik Zamenhof, Nikolai Gogol, Julian Tuwim, the intention of the translator, The inspector general

Russian document of the XVIII century: punctuation is the original manuscript and the transliterated publication
Research material is the body of archival documents the beginning of the XVIII century. The article is devoted punctuation handwriting. The paper analyzes the information about Russian grammar punctuation of the XVII and XVIII centuries. The article deals with the problem of punctuation transliterated text.
Key words: punctuation, History of the Russian language, grammar, document language, cursive

Baba i mužyk as the key words to the linguistic picture of a woman and a man in the Russian rural prose
The words baba (a woman) and muzhyk (a man) are the subject of analysis of this work. They reflect the system of values, moral and social norms typical for country community, represented in the works of F. Abramov, V. Belov, V.Rasputin and V.Shukshin. As important statistical and dynamic elements of the architectonic of epics works they can be considered as key words of the linguistic picture of a woman and a man in the works of writers-villagers.
Key words: key word, woman, man, countrywoman, wife, male behavior, a resident of the country

Literaturoznawstwo/The study of literature
About the nature of genius. Piotr Nowikow towards Kant’s aesthetics of genius
The article devoted to Piotr Nowikow’s treatise О гении, о главных его свойствах,
о средствах, им употребляемых, и о влиянии его на современников и потомство is the attempt to find clear reference to Kant’s theory of the aesthetics of genius in Russian aesthetics thought. Nowikow’s work is perceived as the attempt to synthesize the phenomenon of genius arised due to the meeting of two periods, indicating great influence of Romantic thought, directing attention to the person of the artist the genius. From the Russian theoretician’s disquisition emerges the eclectic image of aesthetical thought of the 19th century Russia, not being able to explicitly relate to any of the philosophical- aesthetical theories.
Key words: genius, the artist-genius, the fine arts, aesthetics, the aesthetics of genius, creative process

The dream of returing to the city of his youth in the Boris Klimychev’s poem А я вернусь, ребятя, в Ашхабад…
This article is the first attempt at an analysis of Boris Klimychev’s poem under the title А я вернусь, ребята, в Ашхабад…, which is part of a cycle of poems, dedicated to Turkmenistan’s capital, Ashgabat. This poem is the poet back to his youth, which is a time of happiness and joy. The poem is full of nostalgia memory. The article analyzes the poem in comparison to other works of the poet.

Key words: Klimychev, youth, return, nostalgia, Ashgabat

Image of a Book in the contemporary Literature: Versions of Russian and Foreign Writers
In the article on the basis of works of Umberto Eco, M. Pavic, O. Tokarczuk, V. Pelevin, C. Palahniuk examines the interpretation of the image of the book, and motives of the book.

Key words: book, motif, symbol, modern literature, Y. Eco, M. Pavic, O. Tokarczuk, V. Pelevin, C. Palahniuk

The Language of Scent in Poetry and Prose of Boris Pasternak

The article considers linguistic nature of olfactory imagery in poetry and prose of Boris Pasternak. Mechanisms of semantization of smell as a “clearly understood” language of life are outlined. The author’s principles of verbalization of olfactory sense are stated.

Key words: Boris Pasternak, poetics, field of the olfactory, motive, olfactory metaphor


The views of Russian language teaching specialists on the foreign language (Russian) grammar teaching in Polish schools

The article focuses on issues connected with teaching grammar during foreign language lessons (mainly Russian) in Polish schools. The views of Russian language teaching specialists of Polish nationality are presented, including the supporters of the comparative method, active method, repetitive-creative method and situational-activity method as well as their approach to teaching grammar. The article presents the ways of presenting material, its consolidation and practical use.
Key words: teaching grammar, deduction, induction, grammar presentation, grammar phenomena in teaching Russian as a foreign language, grammar in teaching foreign languages, grammar in teaching Russian

Innovative methods of teaching technical Russian language – based on the classes conducted for students of mechanical engineering
In the article the author describes innovative methods of teaching technical language based on the classes of technical Russian language for students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering as part of compulsory technical foreign language course. Selected activities concerning hybrid cars have been analysed. In the course of this topic unit, four language skills were practised: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The author attempted to focus her special attention to an interesting introduction of new vocabulary items, testing the effectiveness of applied methods, communication and the students’ autonomy in performing exercises. The necessity of teaching technical language at engineering faculties has been underlined as this is the language a student will be able to use in their later professional career. The author also emphasizes the role of collaboration and co-creation of classes by a student and a teacher, who – especially in teaching technical language – can feel as a host of a taught lesson.
Key words: technical language, innovative teaching methods, communicative competence

Methodology of constructing tests and test tasks for Russian as a foreign language

The author of the article claims that a teacher of any foreign language should take part actively in creating tests that make controlling language and communicative skills of learners possible. Thus, in the article, most important problems concerning construction of tests and test tasks were discussed. The author presents the stages of preparing a test and the principles of working out test tasks. Besides, the analysis of main kinds of tasks (open tasks and closed tasks) was accomplished. In the article, the advantages and disadvantages of analyzed tasks are indicated and most frequent errors concerning the structure of test tasks used in teaching Russian as a foreign language are presented. According to the author of the article, the knowledge of constructing tests and test tasks may be useful for lecturers, teachers and students who plan to conduct the test control in the classes of a foreign language.
Key words: control, testing, communicative competence, test, test task, errors in constructing test tasks

Efficient use of coaching tools in the Russian language classes within the framework of the Krakow Methodological Workshop “I like Russian”
In the article the author describes how to use the coaching tools in the Russian language classes. In author’s opinion it is one of the most modern methods of working with foreign language which supports both the teacher and the student in the development of personality, in determining the objectives and increasing the ability to achieve them. During the execution of the exercises which involve coaching techniques such as objectives tree, metaphor, icebreaker and energizer, both the teacher and the student develop their practical competence, questioning and listening skills and deliberate conduct conversations, which facilitates access to an interlocutor and which is also motivating. The author draws attention to the role of the teacher and the student as the parties equally involved in the process of learning a foreign language with the use of coaching tools. The author insists foreign language teaching should be carried out in cooperation with learners. The teacher’s role is to coordinate the work and to support the efforts of students in the teaching cooperation, aimed at autonomisation of views and attitudes.
Key words: coaching tools, language competence, autonomisation, communication competence, сommunicative competence, linguistics, socioculture, sociolinguistics, foreign language professional education

Inductive or deductive way? Old question in a new light. Or: Why is it easier to learn by example than on the basis of theoretical rules?
In the article the author is looking for answers to the question posed in the title and reflects on the optimal method of foreign language teaching. By analyzing functioning of the brain during learning and use of the first language and foreign language the text shows arguments for teaching inductive way, that means from the examples to the theoretical rules. Additionally it shows that a foreign language is always perceived through the prism of the first language (L1), which has its own both positive and negative consequences. The paper defines learning process and emphasizes the role of grammar in the language learning. The text also notes the different processes of acquisition of knowledge and skills.

Key words: learning / teaching a foreign language, grammar rules, learning by example (inductive), the theoretical knowledge and practical application

Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis
Studia Russologica VI (2013)

“Pansies” – literary little brothers, little sisters, little stepmothers, little orphans, and little widows – i.e. again about the names of Viola tricolor (L.) in the Slavic languages
In the article the selected, sometimes rarely used Slavic names of the plant Viola tricolor (L.) are discussed. These phytonyme are compared to the well-known in whole Central Europe stories of the origin of the plant.
Key words: Slavs, names of plants, pansies, little brothers, little sisters, little stepmothers, little orphans, little widows

IT language in translations
The world of new technology and therefore our contemporary one is developing at an extraordinary rate. This evolution requires a lot of changes, not only technological, but also mental and linguistic ones.
Usually mentioned names reappear again; they are not invented by users, but only translated or adjusted to the needs of the particular language. Recently, loanwords from English have become especially popular. We seem not to look for the native equivalents, but merely either adjust the English name to the local conditions, or use the original name, which with the passage of time assumes the local character. Therefore, we have ‘interface’, more and more common ‘mail’, ‘logging’, ‘back-up’, ‘user’, ‘bugs’, etc. Linguists, as it could be expected, raise the alarm, convincing themselves and others that each of the cited terms could be successfully substituted with a native equivalent.
The omnipresent existence of IT terminology in the present language may, of course , entertain, amuse, or ease the communication of the users, but it may also cause objections or even a rebellion. We cannot forget, therefore, that this language, and such expressions used in it, no matter how popular or widespread, are found indeed incomprehensible by most of the people using native language on a daily basis.
Key words: IT language, translation, modern technology

Does a Linguist Study Manipulation? The Problem of Hidden Persuasion in Polish and Russian Linguistics
The article presents actual problems of the study of manipulation in modern Polish and Russian linguistics. Definitions of manipulation are provided and the main features of this multifaceted phenomenon are characterized. The distinction between persuasion and manipulation is given, but the features of manipulation, in the opinion of the author, eliminate this term from linguistics.
Key words: persuasion, manipulation, linguistic persuasion, linguistic manipulation, hidden persuasion, psychological influence, linguistic means of persuasion, linguistic means of manipulations
Cognitive models representation of the concept hand in Russian poetry
The article deals with u-component concept hand in Russian poetry texts. The text is analyzed cognitive model, retaining the existence of a number of signs of concept in every sense.
Key words: concept, cognitive model, metaphor, poetical text, hand

Particles мол, де, дескать in modern Russian speech
Tendencies of the particles дe, дескать, мол usage in the modern Russian speech are considered in this article. Their functions in the artistic speech and mass media language are defined here as well. Considered particles activation in written language is noted in this article, their role in interpretation of someone else’s statement or nonverbal behavior is shown here.
Key words: particles, interpretation, nonverbal behavior, modern Russian speech, written language

Metalinguistic Сomment in Artistic Text
This article is deals wiht the reflexive in a artistic text. The cognitive orientation, semantic structure and informative saturation of a metalinguistic comments, which accompanied the story works, is defined.
Key words: meta-language, reflection, artistic text, definition, context

New Research Methodology of Russian City Speech
The article presents an analysis of integrated research methodology in urbanolinguistics. This methodology was used by the author for the study of the functioning of urban Russian speech in Odessa multilingual and multicultural space at different stages of history. The author’s research experience shows that an interpenetration by methods of different scientific paradigms (comparative-historical; system-structural; anthropocentric) is the foundation of the modern comprehensive scientific study of a city speech. The paper defines the scope and procedures of different research methods in synchrony and diachrony of the Russian city speech as one of functional types of the Russian language.
Key words: integrated research methodology; urbanolinguistics; sociolinguistics; method; scientific paradigm; urban speech; urban Koine; the Russian language

Reinforcement of Knowledge by the Conjunctive and Coordinative Bond in the Learning to Read in Russian
The article examines some of the principles optimizing the processes of understanding, learning and practicing the rules of functioning of the coordinative conjunctions in modern Russian. In our opinion, reading is one of kinds of speech activity, which is observed in training the greatest success in understanding and mastering the rules of use of Russian coordinative conjunctions by Chinese students. The principles of systemic organization of coordinative conjunctions, of the frequency of use them in communication, and the principle of aliasing of relations transmitting by coordinative conjunctions are important during a study of Russian conjunctions by Chinese students.
Key words: coordinative conjunction, conjunctive bond, learn reading, introductory reading, reinforcement knowledge, training text, the Russian language in China
Literaturoznawstwo/The study of literature

About the Conceptualization of Passions in the lyric poetry of M. Tsvetaeva 1920th
In the article is investigated conceptualization of passions and analysed the specific of concept «jealousy» in a context of worldview dominants, cultural and personality experience of M. Tsvetaeva. Also is investigated originality of are images and the symbolics, included in the semantic class of concept. For the decision of declared problem is investigated the row of poems and expression of poetess, affecting the theme of jealousy and poem An Attempt at Jealousy.
Key words: сoncept «jealousy», passion, mental world, worldview dominants, communication, symbol

«Women territories»: the heroine of the drama by M. Arbatova in search of gender self-identity
The author tackles the plays of M. Arbatova, whose heroines are in search of their gender identity. Thus a new model of the interaction between feminine and masculine discourses is being constructed.
Key words: self-identity, feminism, femininty, masculinity, corporeality, conflict, dichotomy, gender, gender stereotypes, discourse, type.

Ethnic “Otherness” In Heroes’ of Lyudmila Ulitskaya’s Stories
The article is devoted to the issue ot ethnic “otherness” and mode of its presentation in Lyudmila Ulitskaya’s stories. Among the “other” heroes: children, women, ill and disabled people, there is a large group of individuals characterized with an ethnic origin other than Russian, mostly Jews, but also representatives of various national minorities composing the Soviet empire. Their otherness is defined by the non-compliance to the political, social and cultural norms.
Key words: “off-the-track” hero, norm, ethnic otherness, Jews, national minorities

„[…] expelled from the Paradise for eternity, with crime at her white feet” –
the image of femme fatale in Valery Bryusov’s works
Based on the selectedworks ofValeryBryusov, this articleis focused on presenting oneof the mainproblemsof literaturefunctioningunder the aegis ofdecadence, namely afemme fatale character. The stories Marble HeadandForYourselforForSomeone Else?, and thenovel TheLastPagesFrom Woman’s Diaryhave been analyzedin terms ofissuesand characteristics ofthe characters.The authordraws attention to thecultural andsocial foundations of thebirth ofwoman-beast atthe turn of the 19th and the early 20th century, which is the epitome of, among others, fearofa strong, activewoman, rootedin the malepsyche.
Key words: Russian decadence, femme fatale, feminity, decadent, love-lust.

Small-numbered indigenous peoples’ Russian literature: scientific version of the Russian-speaking creativity
Article deployed presented to the scientific version of Russian-speaking writers creativity small-numbered indigenous peoples’ literatures of Russia, the phenomenon of small-numbered indigenous peoples’ literatures linked with the ratio of ethnic cultures to postfigurative type, as well as with the status of written language in postfigurative cultures.
Key words: small-numbered indigenous peoples’ literature, Russian creativity, scientific version, ethnopoetics, type of culture, the paradigm concept

Authorial strategies for reading of literary-critical text
The theoretical problems of literary criticism are examined in the article. An accent is done on the system-integral going near critical strategies of reading. The structure of text is characterized semantic connections, by the conditioned cultural paradigm of time.
Key words: criticism, system, strategy, interpretation, polemic, dialogue.

By the method of personal development typological characteristics of Russian literature characters ХIХ – beginning of XX century
The article drew attention to the relevance of an anthropological perspective and consideration of the poetics of Russian literature in the literary courses, middle and high school. Generalization of the anthropological perspective in the works of major writers of literary movements Х1Х – the beginning of the twentieth century, made at the level of the typology of personalities.
Key words: anthropological perspective, literary movements Х1Х – the beginning of the twentieth century, conception of man, typology of personalities

Learning Potential and Functions of the Language Environment in the Study of Russian as a Foreign Language
This article describes the results of the experimental research, during which an attempt to identify the possibilities and ways of using of Russian language environment in the teaching of Russian as a foreign language was made. Ways of using of Russian language environment depend on its functions in the process of mastering of the Russian language by foreign students. There are guide functions (informative and communicative) and auxiliary functions (motivational, eliminative, diagnostic, correcting, activating). Orientation to self-study in terms of the Russian language environment helps to speed up the mastering of the language system and its speech implementation, increases confidence by students in their knowledge and their personal responsibility for level of knowledge of the Russian language. Conscious integration of the language environment enhances students’ communicative abilities. Students can perceive comprehensively a vocabulary of different spheres of communication with the ability to get the full experience of communication in each of the areas of functioning of the Russian language, which are available to them.
Key words: training of Russian as a foreign language, the language environment, the functions of the language environment, learning potential, self-study

The basic principles of control and testing in the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language
In this article, the most important problems concerning objectifying control in the process of foreign language teaching are discussed. The author indicates that the basic object of control during foreign language lessons should be speaking skills because checking knowledge of the language system does not supply information on obtaining communicative competence by a student. Furthermore, in the paper, problems concerning the function of control in the process of language teaching, the choice of the form, the type and the way of accomplishing the control are discussed and the examples of test tasks are presented as well.
Key words: control, testing, communicative competence, functions of control, forms of control, types of control, test, testing technique, testing tasks

Сommunicativecompetence as the aim of teaching bussiness Russian to students of Russian philology at Vanadzor State Pedagogical Institute after Hovh. Tumanyan in the Erasmus Mundus IANUS project. (Armenia)
The author of the article presents how the communicative competence is developed during the business Russian classes of the students of Russian philology at H. Tumanyane Pedagogical Institute in Vanadzor (Armenia) as a part of Erasmus Mundus IANUS project. Some selected exercises connected with the topic: Looking for a job were analyzed. Their aim was to practise four integrated skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The author emphasizes that a learner should be ready not only to communicate in a foreign language but understand different types of linguistic and nonlinguistic behavior as well, which are involved in intercultural communication. That’s why intercultural aspects play an important role in the process of foreign language teaching .The author focuses also on an importance of creating autonomous attitudes among the learners. These attitudes might be useful in the future professional activity. According to the author of this article, both a teacher and a learner are equally engaged in the process of a foreign language acquisition and teaching a foreign language demands learners cooperation. On the other hand, the teacher is obliged to coordinate the process of learning and encourage his students in their attempts, bearing in mind their autonomy. The exercises which develop communicative skills, used in this article, come from the publication by Gołąbek K., Balandyk P., Russian in written and oral business communication, WUJ, Kraków 2012.
Key words: language competence,сommunicative, linguistic, socioculture, sociolinguistic, foreign language communication competence, professional education, cross-cultural communication

Formation of intercultural competence among foreign students in pre-university education in the Russian language
The article deals with the questions of a systemic approach towards intercultural competence among foreign students for pre-university learning stage. Intercultural competence is the ability by the means of the studied language to achieve the vocal activity, which corresponds to the purposes of contact in the multinational audience. Intercultural competence is based on the solution step by step pedagogical tasks and unites communicative and under lingual approaches at the practical level.
Key words: methodical approach, intercultural competention, motivation of communication
With will can one do anything? About motivation, intelligence and other selected factors influencing success in learning a foreign language
The text considers issues regarding the effectiveness of learning a foreign language. Starting from the title question „With will can one do anything?” the author analyzes the selected success factors in learning a foreign language, including the role of motivation and intelligence, as well as the possibilities of their development. Further the text illustrates the role of a feedback information in teaching. It also highlights the important role of the teacher’s personality and teaching atmosphere.
Key words: motivation, intelligence, the process of learning and teaching, learning success. feedback, the efficiency of learning, communicative competence